Elaborate instructions om how to cite a research paper in Chicago style

Chicago style started as a list of rules that were written at the University of Chicago by a proofreader. When referencing a research paper format Chicago style, there are some guidelines you should follow. We will discuss how you can design a research paper outline page to suit the 16th edition notes and bibliography style.

  1. Notes
    These are the texts numbers marked consecutively that refer a reader to the bibliographic citations in endnotes or footnotes.
    • Footnotes are designed to indicate citations. A note is indicated by the superscript number placed within a text. This number is repeated at the start of the note on the bottom of a page. It needs to be in full size, and a full stop must follow.
    • If you are citing a source and it’s the first time, you should always cite it in full.
    • The word ibid replaces subsequent footnotes that are of the same source, and then the page number follows. These sources are to be shortened.
    • In case there're three or more authors on a source, a writer is required to cite fully for the first time, and afterward, the sources are subsequently shortened to the First Author et al.
  2. How to format citations in footnotes
    The elements order, spacing, and punctuation in the citation are essential. You are required to follow examples carefully. Here are some things to note:
    • The name of an author can’t be inverted, but it has to be fully written
    • A book’s publishing details are enclosed in brackets
    • Book chapter titles and journal titles are to be enclosed using double quotation marks
    • Each footnote’s first line is indented 2-spaces from a page margin
  3. Bibliography
    A bibliography is placed at the document’s end. It offers full details of the sources that have been consulted and cited by a writer. The list of sources used by the author is alphabetically listed.
  4. Formatting references in the bibliography
    Although the citation format in the bibliography is similar to those used in a footnote citation, there are some few differences that you need to note:
    • Citations need to be listed alphabetically and should include indefinite articles such as a, an and the. However, you can ignore them if you order your references.
    • References in the bibliography list must be indented on the 2nd line (if the reference contains more than two lines).
    • The first author’s name is to be inverted so that the family name or surnames appears first.
    • The sections or elements of the citation are to be separated using full stops and not commas.
    • Don’t use enclosed brackets to highlight the publishing details of a book.


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